(ALT/SGPT, AST/SGOT, Alkaline Phosphatase, Billirubin Direct/ Total/ Indirect, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Albumin/Globulin Ratio)
Liver is one of the important and the largest organ of the body. A large organ present on the right-hand side of the belly. The raw nutrients from the digestive system are taken up by the liver and processed in the form to be stored in the body parts. It performs important functions like blood detoxification, nutrient metabolism bile storing, glucose production, formation of blood clotting proteins, glycogen synthesis, stores vitamins and chemicals, etc. It is both an organ and a gland. It is capable of rejuvenating itself.
Improper functioning of liver can lead to its damage or serious diseases. Liver function test is done to detect liver damage and inflammation. Liver function test in Gurgaon is done to identify proper functioning of liver. For this test, blood samples are generally collected. This panel includes 11 tests, namely bilirubin-total, bilirubin-direct, bilirubin-indirect, alanine aminotransferase [ALT; also called SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase)], aspartate aminotransferase [AST; also called SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase)], alkaline phosphate (ALP), protein-total, globulin, albumin, serum albumin/globulin ratio and GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase). It can be easily done at home in Gurgaon by just booking an appointment with Next Door Lab.
Bilirubin is the bile produced by the human liver. Its elevated level causes skin yellowing leading to jaundice. In a healthy human, its level should be <17 µmol/L. In a jaundice patient, it is 50 µmol/L or greater. Destruction of red blood cells, commonly known as RBCs, is the result of increased bilirubin formation. Its test is a true liver function test. Increased total-bilirubin which causes jaundice is a sign of number of problems like prehepatic, hepatic and posthepatic. Apart from bile, liver produces a protein called albumin. Its normal value is >35 g/L. Chronic liver disease is the result of decreased albumin in the liver. Liver also produces other proteins called blood clotting factors. These factors do not produce normally when the liver is injured or damaged significantly. International normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time (PT) are the two tests which help in evaluating blood clotting. PT and INR are found increased in patients with severe liver disease. Direct bilirubin should be in the range 0.1--0.4 mg/dL. Its increased level indicates that the liver is able to conjugate the bilirubin normally but unable to excrete it. Such a case results in cirrhosis, hepatitis or cancer. ALT test helps in determining hepatitis; its normal range is 7--56 U/L (units per liter). ALP helps in detecting the blocking of bile ducts; its normal range is 45--115 U/L. Normal range of AST is 5--40 U/L. Normal values of GGT range from 9 to 48 U/L.
Symptoms of liver disease include:
Other tests include undergoing lipid biopsy, wherein a surgical needle is inserted inside the liver and examined under microscope. This can be done by two ways: (1) by obtaining a tissue sample from the liver and (2) using imaging techniques, the liver is examined. First method utilizes anesthesia and a mark is made to analyze. Second method usually involves an ultrasound or less commonly used technique CT scan, which figures out the site of tumor. CT scan or MRI also helps in diagnosing cancer. Less commonly used techniques include laparoscopy, done under specific circumstances, and transvenous liver biopsy. Biopsy of liver is done to diagnose chronic liver disease and to detect fibrosis, FibroScan (FS) is done. Liver biopsy results in bleeding which is very rare, almost <1% of patients encounter bleeding. Alternatives to liver biopsy include the examining the physical condition of the patient, blood tests and the medical history. FS is done which is done by using the elastic wave – measures stiffness of the hepatic; can be performed easily; cheaper to biopsy. The major difference between the two techniques is that the sample tissue from liver biopsy is taken from only one location, whereas FS measurement can be done at any location of the liver.
Gastroenterologists are the specialized doctors who focus on liver and digestive organs. Liver diseases can be easily treated by internal medicine or primary care specialists. Liver specialist is a hepatologist. Doctors say liver diseases can be controlled or prevented easily by