(Urea ,Creatinine, Uric acid, BUN, BUN/Creatinine Ratio, Ionized Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride)
(BUN, BUN/Creatinine Ratio, Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid)
Kidneys have a very important role in maintaining your health. They are two in number located on the either side of the spine and have a size of a fist. Unit of kidney is nephron which is millions in number and possess filtering unit called glomerulus which is attached to a tubule. Glomerulus filters the blood and excretes the remaining fluid into the tubule. The tubule filters the fluid according to the need of the body and the final product is urine.
Various life-sustaining functions performed by kidneys include filtering and removing wastes from the body in form of urine, maintaining level of minerals and water, and critical to the production of vitamin D and red blood cells. They also produce hormones which help in regulating blood pressure. If any of the above roles fail to happen, kidney disease can occur. Symptoms of kidney problems include painful urination, increased blood pressure, urinating frequently, blood in the urine, or swelling in hands and feet observed if fluids build-up in the body. Other symptoms include tiredness, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, breath shortness and inability to concentrate; all of these could mean a CKD (chronic kidney disease) or kidney failure. To notice here is the fact that a single of above-mentioned symptom not necessarily mean a kidney disease or something serious. But if such actions appear quite frequently, then it is not to be ignored. This means your kidneys are not working properly. If you are a diabetic patient, have high blood pressure, having a family member with kidney disease and age 60 or above, then going for kidney test is a must.
Kidney function tests in Gurgaon are common laboratory tests which are performed to evaluate how well are they working. They include six tests, namely uric acid, serum urea, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (abbreviated as BUN), urea/creatinine ratio and BUN/creatinine ratio. For these tests, blood and urine samples are generally collected.
Urine test is commonly named as ACR. ACR stands for “albumin-to-creatinine ratio”. Albumin is a protein that is needed by the body in the blood but not in the urine. If urine contains blood, this indicates a sign of early disease. This test is required to be repeated continuously for three months, once in every month. Three positive results are definitely not good. ACR value of below 30 means normal, while a value above 30 may indicate a kidney disease. Blood test is done to evaluate your GFR that is “glomerular filtration rate”. GFR helps in determining the creatinine content in the urine. Creatinine is a waste product which comes from muscle tissue. GFR number greater than 60 indicates that it is in the normal range. GFR below 60 indicates likeliness of a kidney disease. While GFR below 15 means that there is a need of dialysis or kidney transplant. GFR reveals how well the kidneys are working.
Other tests include imaging tests and kidney biopsy. Imaging tests include X-rays, ultrasound, cystogram, voiding cystourethrogram, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. X-ray reveals the abnormalities in kidney size or position. It also reveals clearly if there is a stone or tumor. Cystogram is a bladder X-ray. In voiding cystourethrogram, the bladder is X-rayed before and after urination. MRI, using radio waves and a magnetic field, gives a 3D image of the urinary tract and the kidneys. CT scan, clubbing of X-ray and digital computer technology, reveals the urinary tract and the kidneys image. Biopsy is removing a tissue piece for laboratory test. It is of two types: kidney biopsy and bladder biopsy. In kidney biopsy, anesthesia is given and a special needle is inserted to obtain a sample of kidney tissue. Kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis required to treat CKD. In bladder biopsy, a thin tube (cystoscope) is inserted into the bladder via urethra. This helps the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and helps in checking the abnormalities. This procedure is known as cytoscopy. It is done under certain circumstances like
If you have or not a kidney disease, keep your blood glucose and blood pressure in the target range by consulting your doctor from time to time. Kidney diseases can be treated; all you need to do is follow your doctor strictly. Following are some healthy lifestyle tips to keep your kidneys functioning proper.
Apart from all medication and care, always stay positive, educate people around you, share the good habits of eating and exercise, and regular check-ups for those aged 60 or above. Educating others rightly will motivate you too. Stay Healthy!