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Comprehensive Health Check up (Total Parameters 103)

Today’s modern generation is running on money-making treadmill. Unhealthy eating habits, long working hours, and rising stress are few reasons that may lead to the development of health issues. If you are obese, heavy smoker, or breathless, oo-oo! Wake-up! It is an alarm for opting a check-up. Such scenario is an indication for you to be conscious now because good health is a key to fruitful and a happy life. Like water is a precious commodity, so is our health. Comprehensive health check-up in Gurgaon offers you multiple test to assess your health and take timely actions to any medical complication, if any. This package is custom designed not for one but for all age groups.
Comprehensive health check-up includes the 16 main tests categories, namely iron studies, arthritis screening, electrolyte plus, vital vitamins, thyroid, heart, liver, kidney, vitals check, diabetes, complete haemogram, complete urine, diabetes monitoring, and cancer screening, infection screening and allergy screening, apart from the basic ones included in full body and executive health check-ups. Under these 16 categories fall 103 different tests, all of which completes this package. It is a well-designed health program. It can help by in-depth body analysis, leaving no tits and bits. With growing health issues, technology too has advanced over time and has brought innovative and latest modalities focusing on early detection of diseases . A brief of all the tests included in this package are given below.

  • Thyroid
  • Heart
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Vitals Check
  • Complete Haemogram (CBC with P/S)
  • Complete Urine
  • Iron Studies
  • Electrolyte Plus
  • Vital Vitamins
  • Diabetes Monitoring
  • Arthritis Screen
  • Infection Screening
  • Cancer Screening
  • Allergy Screening
  • Diabetes

Thyroid (T3 T4 TSH) - 3 Tests

• Total Tri-Iodothyronine (T3)

• Total Thyroxine (T4)

• Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

For thyroid test, the panel includes 3 tests, namely total T4, total T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). These tests will help in evaluating if the thyroid hormone production is underactive, normal, or overactive. Blood samples are generally collected as sample to conduct these tests. Thyroid, in throat, is a small gland which produces two hormones: T4 and T3. It plays a vital role in metabolism, brain development, weight, body temperature regulation, menstrual cycles, etc. Improper functioning or excessive hormone secretion by the gland can lead to neck thickening, weight loss, high cholesterol, lethargy, etc. TSH is produced when hypothalamus releases TRH (a thyroptin-releasing hormone). TRH triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH. TSH is responsible for the production of T3 and T4, both of which help in metabolism of our body. For brain’s normal growth, both T4 and T3 are required. In hypothyroidism, TSH level increases, while decreases in hyperthyroidism. Although there is no particular cure, taking pills (everyday in the morning on an empty stomach) is the only way to keep things working and is a life-long treatment. Treating thyroid by taking nutritious diet, consuming fresh fruits, vegetables and beans (good source of protein and vitamins) in your routine proves vital. Iodine, which is the most important source required by the thyroid, should be consumed in proper amount. But patients with high blood pressure (BP) reduce its amount which might lead to this problem. Therefore, they should consume alternative foods like sea food, yoghurt milk, sea vegetables and eggs.

Heart Risk Profile (Lipid) - 9 Tests

• Total Cholesterol

• HDL (Good Cholesterol)

• Non HDL Cholesterol

• LDL (Bad Cholesterol)

• VLDL Cholesterol

• Tryglycerides

• LDL / HDL Cholesterol Ratio

• HDL / LDL Cholesterol Ratio

• TC ( Total Cholesterol ) / HDL Cholesterol Ratio

For a healthy heart, undergoing the lipid test is beneficial. This panel includes 9 tests, namely total cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (bad) cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio and TC/HDL cholesterol ratio. Blood sample is collected for these tests. Lipids are fatty acid molecules which are made up of hydrocarbons. They are insoluble in water and have important functions in the body, such as storing energy, acting as messengers, behaving as signaling molecules, etc. When cholesterol level is normal in the body, the blood flows through arteries and veins more freely. Its higher level in the body can lead to atherosclerosis, strokes, hypertension, angina, plaques formation and heart diseases. High cholesterol is not to be worried about. Just consult your doctor and ask them to create a plan for you to maintain it which might include changes in diet, regular exercise and check-ups. Personal look after is necessary along with some medicines. Importantly, changes in your lifestyle and your attitude towards it will have more impact on you.

Liver Function Test (LFT) - 11 Tests

• Bilirubin-Total

• Bilirubin-Direct

• Bilirubin-Indirect

• Alkaline Phosphatase ( ALP)



• Protein-Total

• Albumin

• Globulin

• Serum Albumin / Globulin Ratio

• Gamma GT/GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transferase)

Liver tests includes 11 tests, namely bilirubin-total, bilirubin-indirect, bilirubin-direct, alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine aminotransferase [ALT; also known as SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase)], aspartate aminotransferase [AST; also known as SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase)], protein-total, globulin, albumin, serum albumin/globulin ratio and GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase). Liver function test is a panel of tests which is done to detect liver damage and inflammation. For this test, blood sample is required. Liver is one of the important and the largest organ of the body present on the right-hand side of the belly. Blood detoxification, nutrient metabolism bile storing, glucose production, formation of blood clotting proteins, glycogen synthesis, stores vitamins and chemicals, etc. are some important functions performed by the liver. Improper functioning of liver can lead to its serious diseases or damage. Symptoms of liver disease include fatigue, confusion, weakness, ascites, weight loss, jaundice (skin yellowing), nausea and vomiting, and swelling of legs. Liver diseases can be easily treated by internal medicine or primary care specialists. Doctors say that the liver diseases can be controlled or prevented easily by reducing alcohol consumption; maintaining a healthy weight; taking a balanced diet; and taking medications, derived by thorough study of patient’s good history and physical examination, as prescribed.

Kidney Function Test (Basic) - 6 Tests

• Uric Acid

• Serum Urea

• Serum Creatinine

• Urea / Creatinine Ratio

• Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

• BUN / Cretinine Ratio

Kidney tests include 6 tests, namely uric acid, serum urea, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea/creatinine ratio and BUN/creatinine ratio. For these tests, both blood and urine samples are collected. Kidneys have a very important role in maintaining your health. They are two in number located on the either side of the spine and have a size of a fist. Various life-sustaining functions performed by kidneys include filtering and removing wastes from the body in form of urine, critical to the production of vitamin D and red blood cells, maintaining level of minerals and water, and producing hormones which help in regulating blood pressure. If any of the above roles fail to happen, kidney disease can occur. Symptoms of kidney problems include painful urination, increased blood pressure, urinating frequently, blood in the urine, or swelling in hands and feet observed if fluids build-up in the body. Kidney diseases can be treated: all you need to do is follow your doctor strictly; regular blood pressure check-up is necessary; rely on healthy foods and cut down salt content in your diet; quit smoking and alcohol consumption; if you are overweight, put down some weight; and try to lower your stress levels by doing things that make you feel relaxing.

Vitals Check (Blood Sugar & BP Check) - 3 Tests

• Blood Glucose fasting / Random

• Pulse Rate Check

• Blood Pressure Check (BP)

Vitals check include 3 tests, namely blood sugar fasting or random, pulse rate check, and BP check. Blood sugar fasting test is done to detect the amount of the glucose in the blood. Thus the test is performed when you have not eaten for last 8 hours and is preferred to take in the morning. For this test, blood sample is required. This is the primary test done to detect two conditions: the prediabetes and diabetes. On the other hand, random blood sugar test is performed several times a day regardless of when you have eaten last. This test helps in evaluating if the glucose level in the blood remains almost same throughout the day. If it does, the test is normal. If it varies widely, it means that there is a problem. Carbohydrates are a major source of glucose. After you eat, glucose levels rise. The pancreas release insulin to prevent the glucose level from rising too high. High levels of blood glucose can cause problems like damaging kidneys, blood vessels and eyes. The normal range for fasting blood sugar level and two hours after eating is 70--100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL. Pulse rate is checked to see how well the heart is working; to find the cause of symptoms like fainting, chest pain, dizziness and breath shortness; to check blood inflow after any injury; to check the fitness level (checking pulse rate when at rest and after exercise). All preparation required needs a watch to note the time and a quiet place to sit and count the pulses. Gently place your first two fingers at neck or wrist and count the beats for 30 seconds and double it to get the result for one minute. Pulse is the rate at which heart beats. Normal range of pulse rate for adults is 60--100 bpm, for children aged 11--17 is 60--100 bpm, for babies to age 1 is 100--160 bpm, and for athletes is 40--60 bpm. BP is the measure of the force with which the blood is pushed by the heart in to the arteries and carried to the different parts of the body. The normal range of BP is 120/80 mm Hg; the upper and lower numbers represent the systolic and diastolic BP. The causes of high BP include: overweight, smoking, alcohol consumption, genetics, diet with high salt content, stress, etc. Prevention for high BP includes physical activity and low salt content in their diet, maintaining a healthy lifestyle. At the age of 50 or above, getting BP checked should be a habit.

Complete Haemogram (CBC With P/S & ESR) - 26 Tests

• Hemoglobin (Hb)

• Total WBC Count (TLC)

• R.B.C. Count




• Neutrophils

• Lymphocytes

• Monocytes

• Eosinophils

• Basophils

• Packed Cell Volume (PCV)

• Platelet count








• Absolute Neutrophils Count

• Absolute Lymphocytes Count

• Absolute Monocytes Count

• Absolute Eosinophils Count

• Absolute Basophils Count

• Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Complete haemogram panel includes 26 tests, namely hemoglobin (Hb), total WBC count (TLC), RBC count, MCV (mean corpuscular volume), MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, PCV (packed cell volume), platelet count, peripheral smear (P/S) examination, RDW-SD (RBC distribution width-standard deviation), RDW-CV (RBC distribution width-coefficient of variation), PDW (platelet distribution width), MPV (mean platelet volume), P-LCR (platelet large cell ratio), PCT (platelet crit), absolute neutrophils count, absolute lymphocytes count, absolute monocytes count, absolute eosinophils count, absolute basophils count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (commonly known as ESR). For this panel of tests, blood is required which is taken from a vein in the arm. This panel of tests helps in monitoring and diagnosing various diseases that infect the blood cells like inflammation, leukemia, bleeding disorder, anemia, cancer or infection. It helps in monitoring the overall health of a person.

Complete Urine Routine Analysis (CUE) - 20 Tests

• Color

• Specific Gravity

• Apparence

• Reaction (pH)

• Proteins

• Glucose

• Nitrites

• Blood

• Ketones

• Bilirubin

• Urobilinogen

• Leukocutes

• PUS (WBC) Cells


• Epithelial Cells

• Crystals

• Casts

• Bacteria

• Budding Yeast Cells

• Other Findings

Complete urine routine analysis includes 20 tests, namely color, specific gravity, appearance, reaction (pH), proteins, blood, glucose, nitrites, ketones, urobilinogen, leukocytes, bilirubin, pus (WBC: white blood cells) cells, red blood cells (RBC), epithelial cells, crystals, casts, bacteria, budding yeast cells, and other findings. For this panel of tests, urine sample is collected, preferably the first urine of the morning. Complete urinalysis includes an examination of physical characteristics, chemical characteristics and microscopic characteristics. The urinary system is composed of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder and one urethra. Its major function is to excrete the waste products out of the body in the form of urine and help regulating the blood volume and composition. It is a general health test. Frequent urination, abdominal pain, painful urination or particles in urine could be a few of the reasons to undergo this analysis.

Iron Studies (for Anemia Screening) - 5 Tests

• Serum Iron

• Total Iron Binding Capacity

• Transferrin Saturation

• Serum Transferrin

• Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC)

Iron studies includes 5 tests, mostly done for anemia screening, namely serum iron, (TIBC) total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum transferrin, and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC; UIBC = TIBC – serum iron). Anemia is a condition caused due to iron deficiency: meaning that there is a low level (below normal) of RBCs and hemoglobin amount is low in the RBCs. This condition affects both men and women. People with diseases related to kidney, cancer, poor diet (lack of vitamins and iron), chronic infections, etc. have increased risk to develop anemia. Lead causes of anemia deficiency are low RBCs production by the bone marrow and RBCs loss during bleeding. Symptoms include lack of energy, headaches, dizziness, and weakness. It includes five tests which require blood sample for testing. The normal range for serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum transferring, UIBC and TIBC is 60--170 mcg/dL, 20%--50%, 200--360 mg/dL, 12--56 µmol/L, and 255--450 µg/dL. A high level of UIBC, TIBC and transferrin means iron deficiency, while their increased levels indicate the excess amount of the iron.

Electrolyte Plus Profile (Na, K, CL & iCa++) - 4Tests

• Sodium (Na)

• Potassium (K)

• Chloride-Serum (CL)

• Ionized Calcium (Ca++) to identify true calcium values in the body

Electrolyte plus includes 4 tests, namely sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride-serum (CL), and ionized calcium (Ca++) to identify calcium values in the body. This panel is used to identify pH, electrolyte or fluids imbalance (alkalosis or acidosis). Causes of electrolyte imbalance include lung diseases, heart conditions, kidney diseases, etc. Symptoms include fluid accumulation, nausea or vomiting, dehydration, and confusion. They also affect body functions like the amount of water in the body, muscle functions, and the pH of blood. Electrolytes are lost when we sweat. For this panel of tests, blood sample is required. Prerequisite for this panel is to not to eat 8 hours prior to the test. The normal ranges of CL, Na and K levels are 70--111 mmol/L, 136--144 mEq/L and 3.7--5.2 mEq/L. Abnormal results indicate breathing problems, diseases related to kidney, diabetes or other medical problems.

Vital Vitamins Profile (B12 & D3 - 25 Hydroxy) - 2 Test

• Vitamin - B12

• Vitamin D (25 - Hydroxy)

Vital vitamins include 2 tests, namely vitamin B12 and vitamin D (25-hydroxy). Blood sample is required for these tests. Vitamin B12 essential for the body is not produced by the body but is available from foods we eat. Its deficiency leads to anemias, low RBC count or increased size of RBC detected. Symptoms include pale skin, breath shortness, sore tongue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, forgetfulness, and rapid heart rate. 6--8 hours fasting is required before the test is conducted. Normal results mean that there is no deficiency and the symptoms are due to other cause. A low level means that the person has a deficiency but does not reflect the severity of the anemia. Its high levels are uncommon. To prevent its deficiency, vitamin B12 injections are given. Vitamin D plays an important role in the body: absorbing minerals (calcium and phosphorus) from the food we eat. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is done to determine the too less or too high levels of vitamin D in the blood. Its deficiency leads to osteoporosis, hormone problems, and bone weakness/disease. For healthy people, vitamin D should range from 20 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL. A value less than 20 ng/mL means that there is vitamin D deficiency. Abnormal results mean lack of exposure to sunlight, diseases related to liver and kidney, and lack of enough vitamin D in the diet. To treat this, supplements are given for vitamin D, like rifampin, phenytoin, and phenobarbital.

Diabetes Monitoring Profile (with HBA1c) - 5 Tests

• Urine Glucose Fasting

• Urinary Creatinine Screen

• Microalbumin - Urine Screen

• Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio

• Glycosylated Hemoglobin (GHb/HbA1c)

• 3 Months Estimated Average Glucose levels

Diabetes monitoring includes 6 tests, namely urine glucose fasting, urinary creatinine screen, microalbumin - urine screen, microalbumin/creatinine ratio, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb/HbA1c), and 3 months estimated average glucose levels. For these tests, both blood and urine samples can be used, depending upon the doctor’s advice. This monitoring is done to detect kidney diseases, kiadney damage and diabetes. Glycosuria and glucosuria are the two conditions under which the urine glucose fasting test is performed. This test measures the amount of glucose in the urine. It helps in monitoring the diabetes. Its normal range is 0--0.8 mmol/l in urine; normally the urine contains no glucose. In prediabetes condition, the glucose level range is 5.6--6.9 mmol/l; in diabetes, it is greater than and equal to 7.0 mmol/l. The urinary creatinine screen test is performed to evaluate the creatinine low or high levels in the urine. Creatinine is a by-product produced from muscle metabolism. Its normal value in the urine should range from 20 to 350 mg/dL. Consuming water more than normal required leads in dilution of the urine removing the creatinines from it and the value falls down to 20 mg/dL. Low creatinine amount in the urine indicates some kidney ailments, which is rare and does not mean that it is associated with pregnancy, diabetes, exercise, or being vegetarian. Microalbumin test is performed to detect kidney disease/damage. It is a sensitive test that is able to detect even very low levels of a blood protein (albumin) in the urine. People with any kidney-related disease or diabetes or high BP must get this test done. Its normal value is 30 mg; early kidney disease has 30--300 mg value which indicates microalbuminuria, while a value greater than 300 mg indicates macroalbuminuria. Microalbumin to creatinine ratio is measured to identify the condition where the kidneys leak albumin in the urine. Its value in the range 30--300 indicates microalbunimuria and a value greater than 300 means macroalbuminuria. The normal value of this ratio is less than 30. Diagnosis involves following your doctor strictly. How well your diabetes is controlled can be tested by GHb/HbA1c test. Hemoglobin is a component found in the RBCs that carries O2 to the body’s cells and glucose molecules are found stuck to hemoglobin: this means that the hemoglobin is glycosylated. This glycosylation increases when the glucose level rises up. Its normal value should be less than 5.7%; prediabetics have a range 5.7%--6.4%; and diabetics have greater than 6.5%. Three months estimated average glucose levels are tests done to evaluate the glucose level over time, about last 2--3 months. This helps the healthcare provider to conclude what is the response of the diabetic to the treatment, if another measure is required or not. This test is done with adults over 45 age or people with overweight. A non-diabetic person has a value less than 5.7%, diabetic has 6.5% or higher, while ones who have increased risk in future of developing diabetes have range of 5.7%--6.4%. As per ADA (American Diabetes Association) recommendations, one should try to keep their A1c level less than 7%.

Arthritis Screen (Bone Profile with RA-Factor) - 4 Tests

• Calcium

• Phosphorus

• Alkaline Phosphatase

• Rheumatoid Factor (RA test)

Arthritis screen includes 4 tests, namely calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and rheumatoid factor (RA test). Bone disorders and liver diseases call for this screening: Cushing syndrome, osteoporosis, rickets/osteomalacia, Paget disease, metastatic bone disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and renal osteodystrophy. Blood sample is required for these tests; only in few cases a random urine sample might be required. Calcium test can be done if kidney stones are suspected in the urine. A normal calcium test result means normal calcium metabolism and proper blood regulation. High levels of calcium indicate hypercalcemia, while low levels indicate hypocalcemia. In case of abnormal calcium levels result, phosphorus test is done in line. Phosphorus helps in maintaining the body’s acid--base balance. Low levels of phosphorus are due to hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, rickets, alcohol consumption, and overuse of diuretics. High levels are due to hypoparathyroidism, kidney failure and cases where phosphorus supplements are being increasingly consumed in the diet. One should avoid soft-drinks and packaged foods which contain high phosphorus content. ALP is an enzyme present in several body tissues. They form bile ducts at the edges of the cells to let bile move to bowels from the liver. When bile ducts block, isoenzymes increase and cause bone disorder. Deformed bones and joint pain call for ALP test. Higher bone cell activity means higher ALP levels. Bones enlarge/deform, certain bacterial infections, ulcerative colitis and Wilson disease are the results of increased, moderately elevated, and lowered levels of ALP. RA (rheumatoid arthritis) is an autoimmune disease and leads to pain in joints, stiffness, mobility loss, and erosion in the joints. RA can affect anyone and has no specific time or age to occur. To find out if a person is suffering from RA, commonly rheumatoid factor (RF) test is performed. Other tests include X-ray, MRI and ultrasound. There is no cure to RA and the treatment is just to slow down the pain and minimize the joint complications.

Infection Screening (HCV & HBsAg) - 2 Tests

• Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

• Hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg}

Infection screening includes 2 tests, namely hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). For this screening, blood sample is required. A condition in which the liver enlarges or inflammation is observed is called hepatitis. There are five hepatitis viruses identified to infect blood: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E. HCV causes liver infection. HCV antibody test is done to diagnose and screen the HCV infection and monitor the treatment for the same. This test detects the antibodies to the virus if present. Three tests are conducted for monitoring and diagnosing: HCV RNA test, viral genotyping, and HCV viral load. But no vaccine is available to prevent the infection. It causes death in 1%--5% cases with chronic infection. HBV spreads by coming in contact with infected person’s blood/fluids. Vaccines effective for HBV are available. For detecting, monitoring and follow-up of the HBV infection, three tests are conducted: HBsAg, HBsAb and total hepatitis core antibody (IgG and IgM). These tests are helpful in detecting acute viral infection. In case of much liver damage, a liver biopsy is done.

Cancer Screening (for Male or Female) -1 Tests

• CA125 - Ovarian Cancer marker (for women)

• Prostate Specific Antigen - PSA (Total) for Men

Cancer screening includes 2 tests, one for male: prostate specific antigen (total PSA), and other for female: CA125 – ovarian cancer marker. Screening helps in early detection of the disease, even before symptoms have appeared. PSA is a test used for monitoring and screening prostate cancer in males as a tumor marker. Blood sample is taken to conduct this test. It only detects the cancer but is not a diagnosis to it. Prostate cancer treatment can be only done by undergoing prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer is the most common type of male cancer and grows very slowly. PSA is found in the blood in either free form or complexed. Elevated PSA levels indicate that there is cancer; but it does not mean it is prostate cancer, rather it could be inflammation of the prostate or BPH (benign prostate hyperplasia). The normal value of total PSA is 4.0 ng/ml. A value greater than 10.0 ng/ml means that you are at the increased risk of this cancer, while the range 4.0--10.4 ng/ml indicates likeliness of the cancer. For ovarian cancer, CA125 (cancer antigen 125) is used as a tumor marker. This tumor helps in determining if the cancer has reverted after successful treatment. For women without this cancer, CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound are used in combination. The risk factor for this cancer is inherited genetic mutation: genes related are BRCA1 and BRCA2. It is a non-specific test. For early detection of this cancer, there is no method currently because the symptoms are non-specific. During therapy, if the CA125 levels fall, it means the treatment is working. If the level rises or remains the same, it means that there is no response to the treatment. If the level rises once the therapy is done, it means the cancer has come back.

Allergy Screening (Total IgE) -1 Tests

• Total IgE (for Screening of allergies)

Allergy screening includes 1 test, namely total IgE (immunoglobulin E). immunoglobulin is a protein having an important role in the immune system; plasma cells produce them and they respond to various microorganisms, like virus and bacteria, and to foreign substances. It is of five classes: A, E, D, M, and G. IgE test is used to screen and detect allergies or allergic diseases. Blood sample is required for this test. With parasitic infections, IgE increases, thus can be used as a marker to screen for the parasitic infection. Symptoms include difficulty in breathing, coughing, hives, eczema, persistent itching, chest tightness, and nausea or vomiting. An increased IgE level means that the person is having allergies, might be one or more. If IgE levels are related to a specific allergen/s, with time the IgE level will drop and rise. But an elevated level of IgE means that the person is having an allergic process. But in this case, the type of infection cannot be determined.

Blood Sugar Fasting

Diabetes includes blood sugar fasting test. Diabetes is a chronic condition or disease in which blood sugar level rises too high. It is of two types: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes and Type II (non-insulin dependent) diabetes. In Type I diabetes, the body is unable to make insulin. While in Type II diabetes, the body either does not make insulin or unable to use it well. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and lowers the blood glucose. It is obtained from the food we eat. Out of the two types, Type II diabetes is more common. Symptoms of diabetes include weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, skin problems, increased urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), etc. Diabetes can be diagnosed. In Type I, insulin injections are given and exercise is preferred. While in Type II, weight loss and strict meal plan is to be followed, as prescribed by the doctor. It can be diagnosed by undergoing four tests: two consecutive blood glucose fasting test (normal value is greater than 126 mg/dL), random blood glucose test (normal value is greater than 200 mg/dL), hemoglobin A1c (glycohemoglobin) test (normal value: ≥6.5%) and oral glucose tolerance test (normal value is greater than 200 mg/dL). For these tests, only blood sample is required.

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