Chronic Kidney Disease – Stages, Symptoms and Treatments

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease abbreviated as CKD, and also known as chronic renal disease, is a disease when the kidney functioning is lost permanently. It might be the result of kidney failure. It occurs over months to years. Kidneys are a pair of organs, bean-shaped, which help in filtering and removing the wastes from our body, stimulates RBC production, maintain the regulation of blood pressure, etc. When all these functions fail to happen, it leads to kidney failure or CKD. Its advanced stage leads in building up of waste materials and fluids in the body. This increases the risk for heart and blood vessels diseases to occur. The two main causes of CKD are high blood pressure and diabetes – in two-thirds of the cases. Other disease conditions affecting the kidneys include repeated urinary infections, lupus disease, malformations, glomerulonephritis, inherited diseases like polycystic kidney diseases, etc.

The severity of CKD is classified into five stages according to the previous guidelines: stage 1 is the mildest with few symptoms and stage 5 indicates the severe illness. Following is a brief on stages of kidney condition at different stages.

Stage 1: kidney damage is too less or increased filtration.

Stage 2: kidney function decreases slightly.

Stage 3: kidney function decreases moderately.

Stage 4: kidney function decrease severely.

Stage 5: kidney failure occurs.

In early stages of Chronic kidney disease, there are no severe signs and symptoms; but if the kidney condition advances, some symptoms are observed like poor appetite, dry and itchy skin, trouble in concentrating and sleeping, puffiness around eyes, shortness of breath, swollen ankles and feet, fatigue and weakness, nausea and vomiting, hiccups, chest pain, and frequent urination. Some people are more prone to kidney diseases than others because of certain health issues like diabetes, high blood pressure, old age, high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, and family history of kidney failure. In addition, people with CKD are more prone and suffer with cardiovascular diseases.

Potential complications related with affects of CKD on your body include:

1. anemia,

2. pericarditis,

3. weak bones and increased bone fracture risk,

4. hyperkalemia,

5. cardiovascular diseases,

6. pregnancy complications,

7. irreversible damage to the kidneys,

8. decreased sex drive,

9. pulmonary edema, and

10. damage to central nervous system.

For CKD, blood sample is required. This test helps in measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood. Higher creatinine levels mean a lower GFR (glomerular filtrate rate) which leads in a decreased kidney capability of filtering waste products out the body. However, in early stages, the creatinine levels may be normal and might be ignored. Urinalysis (UA) can be used to detect the condition where kidney fails to filter the protein into the urine. Medical imaging, kidney biopsy, and blood test for kidney function can reveal the exact underlying causes of the kidney damage or any reversible cause, if present. However, GFR is one of the best test to determine the stage of kidney diseases by measuring the kidney function. The doctor will calculate the GFR, perform ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan, and perform kidney biopsy, if required. Following tests are required to take in every two–three months:

1. cholesterol test,

2. phosphorus test,

3. albumin test,

4. complete blood count (CBC) test,

5. electrolytes test,

6. potassium test,

7. sodium test,

8. calcium test, and

9. magnesium.

CKD changes the results of various tests: vitamin D level, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone density level, and erythropoietin.

CKD can be prevented by healthy living habits, quitting smoking and alcohol consumption habits, avoiding medicines which might worsen the kidney condition, regular exercises, avoid eating potassium-rich and salty foods, and do not over-do with the NSAIDs. Treatment may include

1. phosphate-binding medicines,

2. vitamin D supplements,

3. increasing iron in regular diet or erythropoietin injections or blood transfusions,

4. following strict diet as per doctor’s advice:

a. less protein-containing foods

b. limiting fluids

c. preventing weight loss by consuming more calories

5. vaccinations, as prescribed by the doctor regularly,

a. flu vaccine

b. hepatitis A vaccine

c. hepatitis B vaccine

d. pneumonia vaccine (PPV)

6. increase social contact with people suffering from kidney disease, and

7. maintain doing your daily activities – especially those that relax you and make you feel enjoyable.

All treatment and diagnosis you need could be first dealt with a doctor on, where free doctor consultation facility is available. You just need to submit your query with NextDoorLab and the team will contact you within 24 hours. Avail this opportunity at home. Upon your satisfaction, select the appropriate test and order it online. The sample will be collected from your home — you just need to follow if they provide the instructions before providing your sample. NextDoorLab is here now to kick out the stress and pain of long waiting and moving from one place to another for giving your sample and collecting your reports. You are just a click away from the opportunity. Because we believe

“A Good Health is the Best Wealth.”

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