Complete Haemogram Test | Complete Blood Count Test

Full Blood Count Test

The complete haemogram test or complete blood count (CBC) is used as a broad screening panel to check for different diseases and infections in the body. The test evaluates mainly three types of cells: (1) RBCs (red blood cells), (2) WBCs (white blood cells), and (3) platelets. Various tests included in these three categories of blood cells are HB (hemoglobin), TLC (total WBC count), RBC count, MCV (mean corpuscular volume), MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, PCV (packed cell volume), platelet count, P/S (peripheral smear) examination, RDW-SD (RBC distribution width-standard deviation), RDW-CV (RBC distribution width-coefficient of variation), PDW (platelet distribution width), MPV (mean platelet volume), P-LCR (platelet large cell ratio), PCT (platelet crit), absolute neutrophils count, absolute lymphocytes count, absolute monocytes count, absolute eosinophils count, absolute basophils count, and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).

Table 1. The normal ranges for the complete haemogram test.

S. No.
Test name
Normal range
1.
Hb
14–17.5 g/dL (males), 12.3–15.3 g/dL (females)
2.
TLC
4.5-11.0 x 109 /L
3.
RBC count
4.5–5.9 x 106 (males), 4.5–5.1 x 106 (females)
4.
Neutrophils
56%
5.
Eosinophils
2.7%
6.
Lymphocytes
34%
7.
Basophils
0.3%
8.
Monocytes
4%
9.
ESR
0–20 mm/hr
10.
MCV
80–96 µm
11.
MCH
27.5–33.2 pg
12.
MCHC
32%–36%
13.
PCV
36%–47%
14.
Platelet count
150–450 x 103 /µl
15.
RDW-SD
39–46 fL
16.
RDW-CV
11.6%–15%
17.
PDW
8.3–25.0 fL
18.
MPV
8.6–15.5 fL
19.
P-LCR
11.9%–66.9%
20.
PCT
0.15%–.62%
21.
Absolute neutrophils count
1800–7800 /µl
22.
Absolute lymphocytes count
1000–4800 /µl
23.
Absolute monocytes count
0–800 /µl
24.
Absolute basophils count
0–200 /µl
25.
Absolute eosinophils count
0–450 /µl

It is a routine checkup test performed if following symptoms are being observed: fatigue, fever, bleeding, weight loss, weakness, signs of cancer, anemia, leukemia, bruising, infection, etc. This test is also one of the test conducted under full body health check up which helps in monitoring the blood counts likely to fluctuate because of certain treatments or medications going on. The advantage of this test is that it can detect even slightest abnormality, if present, and provides valuable information regarding the medical cause. This test is offered in following conditions: (1) to monitor the overall health, (2) to monitor a medical condition, (3) to confirm diagnosis of a medical condition, (4) to monitor changes caused by medical treatments in the body, (5) to monitor the treatment that might affect blood cells like radiation therapy or chemotherapy, and (6) to screen for some diseases. It is also done in cases where a person is in need of a blood transfusion. For conducting this test, the blood sample is required. You can easily get the test done after free doctor consultation on 0124-222-3197. NextDoorLab gives you the chance to get the test done after your order at www.nextdoorlab.com with free home sample collection.

The three types of blood cells have very important functions in our body. Any deviation from the normal value means a problem. Like WBCs fight against infections in the body, an elevated WBC count indicates an infection or inflammation in the body. As WBCs are composed of different cells, every cell has its own role. For example, neutrophils suggest bacterial infection, eosinophils suggest allergic reactions, while lymphocytes suggest a viral infection. The second blood cell type – RBCs – is important in the body as they are involved in oxygen transportation in the body. The sole component responsible for the oxygen carrier is the HB. A decreased RBC count indicates low HB, anemia, and may interfere with the oxygen carrying capability. The third important blood cell type is platelets, partial fragments of megakaryocytes. Platelets have an important role in the blood clotting system – they get activated upon an indication of bleeding in the body. They help by plugging the bleeding site by forming blood clots.

There are certain reasons, as listed below, due to which the test result may deviate:

1. if you are taking medicines like steroids, thiazide diuretics, quinidine, and some antibiotics leading to a low platelet count,

2. if you are pregnant, because of which RBC is low and WBC is high sometimes,

3. if you have a high WBC count or high triglyceride level,

4. if you have done vigorous exercises, smoked, or are under stress, WBC count will change by 2000 cells per micro liter, and

5. if equipments are not properly calibrated or are under bad condition.

Hence besides taking care, consult with the doctor about this and accordingly go for the test as prescribed.

 

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